The benefits and side effects of anatabine

Anatabine (branded Anatabloc) is a minor alkaloid found in plants of the Solanaceae family which includes tomatoes, eggplants chili peppers and tobacco (1). Anatabine is known to be anti-inflammatory in nature and can be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Moreover, when the immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy tissue and result in several autoimmune diseases, anatabine can be used to reduce the immune system’s process to protect the healthy tissue.

Anatabine is known as Anatabloc in its supplement from that is commercially available. Here is a comprehensive list of all that you need to know about anatabine.

STAT3 is s a protein that is responsible for hindering the process of a protein that does the DNA transcription in our bodies. Anatabine works by inhibiting this protein and thus protecting the body from autoimmune diseases that would occur if it is not regulated (2). [click to continue…]


The side effects and benefits of dogbane (apocynum venetum)

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Dogbane, also known as apocynum venetum has long been used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of depression and hypertension. It was also used as a source of fiber by North American Aboriginals and is grown in Asia, Northern Europe, and North America.

While there are seven species of the dogbane plant the most noteworthy of them is called apocynum venetum. [1]

In Chinese culture, dogbane leaves have been used to make tea for thousands of years. Originally, the leaves of the small shrub have shown to possess anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant effects as well. In recent times, dogbane has gained popularity in the west due to its many health benefits, which was not known of before.

Dogbane is said to have certain sedative, cardio-protective and diuretic properties that are currently being researched on [2]. While most of the evidence of its health benefits are based on animal evidence, dogbane is believed to have a mild anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effect, but further research is needed to determine its main mechanism. [click to continue…]


The benefits and side effects of aronia (aronia melanocarpa)

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Aronia or aronia melanocarpa is also known as ‘black chokeberry’ and is considered by many to be the healthiest fruit in the world, offering more health benefits than any other superfood. [1]

Aronia melanocarpa is one of the three species of berry-producing plants of the rosaceae family and is most commonly found in swamps and woodlands along the eastern seaboard of North America.

The shrubbery grows to 2 to 3 meters and bears white flowers which in time produce small berries of around 13 mm. While its use is limited due to its astringent and sour taste, it is usually mixed with other fruits when used in commercial products because of its high pectin content, which makes it a good preservative. The wild berry is also used in Germany, Russia and Europe in fruit juices, syrups, jellies, spreads and tea. Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts. Wine is made in Lithuania our of aronia, while in Poland, the berries are dried to make an herbal tea sometimes blended with other flavorful ingredients like blackcurrant.

But more importantly, aronia is also used for its many health benefits which is why it has been named a super fruit. The small dark purple fruit has made quite a name for itself in the health food world and has increased in popularity over the past decade. [click to continue…]


The side effects and benefits of alanine

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Alanine is regarded as a non-essential amino-acid that is responsible for building important proteins in the body. It is one of the most important nutrients for amino acid metabolism in the blood, and after it has been synthesized it is absorbed by the liver and then converted. The compound is important, especially when it comes to blood sugar management and glucose production.

Alanine supplements are often used to treat hypoglycaemia, in order to prevent organisms to suffer from insulin shocks or low blood sugar levels. The supplement works to immediately release glucose in the blood stream, thereby ensuring better health. Other important functions of this amino acid ensure supporting the immune system and preventing kidney stones. This is the reason why alanine is often used as a treatment option in orthomolecular medicine.

You can suffer from a shortage of alanine in the body due to poor nutrition, the environment, stress, and a low protein diet. However, you shouldn’t worry as you can easily compensate it with dietary supplements. [click to continue…]


The benefits and side effects of calamus (acorus calamus)

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Acorus calamus is an herb that is used in ancient Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine and is known to enhance the cognitive abilities of a human being. Some studies also suggest that the herb has ability to treat neuropathic pain.

The basic mechanism behind the plant revolves around the interaction of the GABAA receptors. In addition to this, β-asarone is also one of the ingredients that are responsible for the mechanism behind the plant.

Studies suggest that the ingredient can be removed from the plant but it will also take away the good properties away from the plant that will render it useless.

The plant is known as bach, calamus oil, golomi, sweet flag, ugragandha, vacha, and vekhanda but is different than acorus gramineus, which is known as Japanese or dwarf sweet flag. [click to continue…]


Agmatine benefits and side effects

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Agmatine is a well known neurotransmitter. It also works as a neuromodulator in certain processes in the body. Current research shows that agmatine has the potential to be used to treat drug addiction and reduce neuropathic pain. It can also protect the brain from the effect of toxins (1).

Agmatine was discovered over 100 years ago in 1910 by Kossel. Its mechanisms of action on different body functions though, have just been discovered. It is prepared through the removal of a carboxylic group from L-Arginine. It is naturally stored in the neurons and is therefore used in the nervous system whenever required (2).

The direct use of agmatine is not suitable for pain relief as it can elevate pain symptoms in people. The drug has an excellent synergy with most opioids and therefore, works best when combined with a painkiller like morphine (3).

Agmatine affects various processes in animal neurology. It is found to inhibit the enzyme that produces nitric oxide, therefore decreasing its levels. It can also stop receptors such as N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) and others (4).

Agmatine also has the ability to inhibit calcium channels in neurons and stop the production of specific serotonin receptors. Currently, more research is required in order to find further information on how agmatine acts within the body (5).

Agmatine’s metabolism is still not understood clearly with multiple pathways discussed to provide an explanation.

Agmatine may be handled by the Diamine Oxidase (DAO) enzyme, which is responsible for metabolizing histamine. DAO converts agmatine into 4-guanidinobutyrate (6).

This mechanism is suggested to dissolve around half of the plasma agmatine, because the inhibition of the DAO enzyme doubles the plasma concentration of the chemical.

This means that agmatine removes quickly from tissues that have high DAO levels, such as in the kidney, epithelial tissues and smooth muscle cells. They remain for a long period in the brain, liver and skeletal tissues due to the naturally lower levels of DAO (7).

10% of the agmatine can also convert into polyamines such as putrescine through different mechanisms. One mechanism produces urea as a byproduct while the other produces ammonia during the indirect conversion (8).

The current research on animals suggests that agmatine has a wide potential for use as a supplement. Some studies on humans have now appeared on the topic, but all of these employ the use of agmatine injections. It needs to be thoroughly tested for ingestion first before being termed suitable for supplement use.

Due to lack of human testing, it is not possible to discuss the toxic nature of agmatine in finer detail. It is therefore best to remain with the current dose of 2670 mg which was used in human experiments (9).

Agmatine benefits

Some studies show that agmatine does not have a significant impact in providing long term pain relief. This can be a result of the short half life of agmatine in some parts of the body.

Agmatine is not effective against heat pain, and has a weak activity against visceral pain. Agmatine however, can provide pain relief in the case of neuropathic and inflammatory pain (10).

Agmatine also showed signification pain relief in a double blind study using patients that have lumbosacral spine degenerative pathologies. More research is needed in this case, because the relief continued even after discontinuing agmatine sulfate (11).

Agmatine is also known to be useful when withdrawing from alcohol. It is suggested that it helps alcohol withdrawal through a mechanism of NMDA antagonism (12).

Research shows that agmatine is very effective in protecting the body against strokes as the inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the body reduces the amount of toxic nitric oxide levels (13).

Agmatine can also reduce edema which is often associated with the occurrence of a stroke. Edema refers to the condition in which fluid is lost from the arteries into the capillaries and surrounding tissues (14).

Agmatine can increase the activity of NF-kB which in turn increases the concentration of survivin inhibitor. This can save cells from hypoxia and works in contrast to apoptosis or programmed death of the cells (15).

The enzyme that produces agmatine in the body increases during stressful times. This means that it is the natural response of the body to protect it from anxiety. Agmatine increases the activity of neurons in the areas of the brain associated with the handling of stress, anxiety and depression.

Agmatine side effects

There are no general studies on the use of agmatine in humans that can be used to warrant its side effects.

Although research shows that agmatine can protect cells from acidity in the stomach, it is known to increase the chances of developing an ulcer in patients suffering from alcohol withdrawal symptoms (16).

Agmatine can increase the appetite of the person using the drug. This can be helpful for people looking to gain weight but not beneficial for obese people.

The main problem with agmatine is that sufficient research has not been carried out yet, which decreases the potential for widespread use as a health supplement.

Agmatine causes vasodilatation, therefore reducing blood pressure. It should not be used by people who are being treated for hypotension or low blood pressure (17).


There is only a single study that describes the human dosage of agmatine for the treatment of neuropathic pain as employed for daily doses of the people taking part in the experiment. The study used around 1300 to 2670 mgs of agmatine during the research phase.

The current oral dosage value is based on an experiment on rats, which gives an approximation of using 2-6.4 mg/Kg of body weight for humans (18).

One thing to remember though is that agmatine does not absorb well when taken with proteins. This leaves room for research to decide if the oral supplementation of agmatine is possible and carries the same benefits as its delivery through injection.

Summary: Agmatine has great potential for use in the treatment of several adverse health conditions, such as hypertension, anxiety, stress, and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. It can also be a great pain reliever, especially when used with opioids. You should always take care when taking agmatine supplements as its effects are yet to be clearly understood by research.


The benefits and side effects of aniracetam

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Aniracetam is one of several substances of the nootropic drug family and it is used to boost brain function and improve several cognitive processes. Developed around the 1970’s as a nootropic supplement in Belgium, it has grown in popularity as the demand for such drugs has increased.

Aniracetam is a drug belonging to a class of drugs known as nootropics. There are other drugs, such as piracetam, in the category as well. However, Aniracetam is the most potent and therefore has remained the most popular throughout the years.

Widely renowned as one of the most effective brain boosting drugs, the usage of Aniracetam is now fairly widespread, with a comparatively smaller number of side effects. It also contains very low toxicity levels, making it tolerable for almost all users.

As mentioned earlier, Aniracetam is one of a class of drugs that improves brain function, sharpens cognitive skills and generally improves all areas of brain activity. [click to continue…]


The benefits and side effects of DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol)

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The 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a highly toxic yet highly effective solution for weight loss. The primary function of DNP is to increase heat production in the body cells to make them less efficient with energy.

Although DNP has yielded proven results when it comes to weight loss, even small overdoses have been reported to result in death.

Just like our body has various organs designed to perform specialized functions, each of our cells have sub-cellular organelles which function on the same basic principle. One of these organelles is the mitochondrion.

One of the most important sub-cellular organelles, the mitochondria are responsible for producing energy. They do that by producing a co-enzyme known as Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP). You can imagine ATP as the unit of currency when it comes to the production and transfer of energy at the molecular level.

DNP functions by entering the body cells and ceasing the production of ATP in the mitochondria. When cells produce less ATP, the body increases the metabolism to meet its daily energy requirement. A higher metabolic rate, then, leads to weight loss. [click to continue…]